Now showing 1 - 10 of 78
  • Publication
    “Forced technology transfer policies”: workings in China and strategic implications
    (Elsevier Science, 2018-09)
    Prud'homme, Dan
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    This paper evaluates the ability of “forced technology transfer” (FTT) policies – i.e., policies meant to increase foreign-domestic technology transfer that simultaneously weaken appropriability of foreign innovations – to contribute to technology transfer. We focus on transfer of frontier technology in China's newly designated “strategic emerging industries” (SEIs). Drawing on a survey of foreign firms, extensive interviews with foreign firms, and case studies of Chinese firms, we identify three categories of FTT policies in SEIs: “lose the market”, “no choice”, and “violate the law” policies. Our thematic analysis finds that FTT policies likely exert the most leverage over (i.e., force) frontier technology transfer when accompanied by seven conditions: (1) strong state support for industrial growth, (2) oligopoly competition, (3) other policies closely complementing FTT policies, (4) high technological uncertainty, (5) policy mode of operation offering basic appropriability and tailored to industrial structure, (6) reform avoidance by the state, and (7) stringent policy compliance mechanisms. We develop a Strategy & Risk Matrix to forecast the overall leverage of individual FTT policies. We conclude that Chinese FTT policies may enable domestic acquisition of frontier foreign technology if all seven conditions determining policy leverage are fully exploited by the state. However, if this is not the case, the policies have weaker leverage and may even discourage technology transfer.
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    Scopus© Citations 41
  • Publication
    Offshoring of Intangibles: Organizational and Strategic Issues
    (Taylor & Francis, 2010-01-26)
    Grimaldi, Rosa
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    Mattarelli, Elisa
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    Prencipe, Andrea
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    Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    Main Characteristics of World-first Innovation in Catching-up Countries
    (Emerald, 2010-01-26)
    Xie, Wei
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    Purpose - Through examining the development of the video compact disc player industry in China, this article aims to explore the main characteristics of world-first innovation and identify four success factors for innovation followers to launch world-first products in catching-up countries. Design/methodology/approach - This article takes the form of a case study Findings - The main characteristics of world-first innovation in catching-up countries include: from the demand side, innovation is mainly pulled by the local market, rather than technology-push; from the supply side, innovation cannot isolate itself from the rest of the world - suppliers of key technologies in advanced countries play an important role; inter-firm alliances are an increasingly important way to generate world-first innovation; and downstream integration capabilities are required for followers to mix pieces of technologies together at competitive pricing. The success of followers from catching-up countries to launch world-first products hinges on the four critical factors: strengths of complementary assets; figuring out ways to meet local market demand without relying on large R&D spending; emphasizing untapped innovation opportunities by multinationals; and positioning themselves on the proper points of the globally coordinated network for innovation. Originality/value - This article identifies the main characteristics of world-first innovation and points out four success factors for innovation followers to launch world-first products, which could be significant to managers in catching-up countries. Findings of this paper are more relevant to large catching-up countries such as India, Brazil, Mexico and Indonesia where a large domestic market could serve as important launch markets for the world-first innovation.
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  • Publication
    How Technology-Based University Research Drives Innovation in Europe and China : Leveraging the power of proximity
    (Emerald, 2008-01-26)
    Harryson, Sigvald
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    Kliknaite, Sandra
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    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess how technology-based university research drives innovation in Europe and China. Design/methodology/approach - This paper draws on extensive theoretical research and literature reviews, and presents a framework based on theories on networking, knowledge creation and innovation. It then introduces three European cases to illustrate practical applications of the framework, and also links the findings to three Chinese cases to make comparative observations as well as recommendations related to Triple Helix concepts and their implications in the China context. It addresses the issue of how learning from universities can enhance company flexibility and performance in innovation, and outlines three different models of collaboration. Findings - The framework and empirical research suggests that weak ties are useful for inspiration in exploration, but that strong industry-university (I-U) ties are required to support exploitation. This finding applies both to Europe and China in the industries covered. Originality/value - This paper provides a new theoretical rationale for I-U learning alliances as a natural way out from the managerial problem of trying to perform both exploration and exploitation within the same company boundaries. Through the theoretical framework, the academic science domain becomes a logical partner to handle the full phase of exploration and support the process of exploitation. The presented European cases of Bang & Olufsen, Combibloc and Porsche offer new insights into how to perform this act in practice, while the three China-related cases allow us to cross analyse empirical findings and draw initial conclusions with policy implications for China.
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  • Publication
    Technological Capability Development in China's Mobile Phone Industry
    (Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 2008-06)
    Jin, Jun
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    The development of technological capability (TC) is critical for manufacturing firms in high-tech industries. Kim's [1980. Stages of development of industrial technology in a developing country: a model. Research Policy 9, 254-277] model of acquisition, assimilation, and improvement is widely accepted to explain TC development in developing economies. However, some R&D practices we observed in Chinese manufacturing companies appear to be in disagreement with Kim's model. Based on four in-depth cases studies set in China's mobile phone industry, we hypothesize (a) a complementary stage in Kim's model, and (b) those stages can be traversed concurrently.
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    Scopus© Citations 95
  • Publication
    Differences in orientations between Western European and Chinese service organizations
    (Emerald, 2007-10-25)
    Gebauer, Heiko
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    The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge of differences between Western European and Chinese service organizations in typical manufacturing companies. The paper combines qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The qualitative study involved 23 minicases with Swiss manufacturing companies which operate a service organization in Western Europe and China. The results of the minicases were validated externally by using factor and discriminant analysis. The results suggest that the service orientation of corporate culture, human resource management and the entire organization is significantly lower in Chinese service organizations than in their Western European counterparts, leading to significantly lower financial service-related performance outcomes. For service management theorists, the findings suggest that increasing financial service-related performance outcomes in China is affected to a high degree by Chinese cultural characteristics. For managers, the findings suggest that implicit logic for increasing financial service-related performance outcomes starts with overcoming typical and, in some respects, limiting cultural characteristics. This research closes this gap by validating factors that differentiate Western European from Chinese service organizations.
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    Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Globalization of R&D and China: An Introduction
    (Taylor & Francis, 2007-01-26)
    Sun, Yifei
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    Simon, Dennis
    In this introduction, we discuss the recent changes in multinational corporations' (MNCs) research and development (R&D) strategies and China's rising role in this new development. Significant changes include: 1) More and more corporations have started overseas R & D operations; 2) the missions of many overseas R&D facilities have shifted from the traditional supplementing and supporting roles to become critical and strategic components of MNCs' global R&D networks; and 3) MNC overseas R&D operations have expanded their geographic reach to carefully selected developing countries. China has benefited from such changes and has become one major attraction for such R&D facilities due to its rich endowment of low-cost and well- trained scientists and engineers as well as its fast growing domestic market and burgeoning foreign investment in manufacturing. The explosion of foreign R&D investment has also been accompanied by the rapid growth of China's domestic investment in R&D. The growth in both domestic and foreign investment in R&D implies that China will improve its position in global economic and technological competition. However, it is unclear to the rest of the world about the implications of China's rising R&D and whether or not China can capture the value from the presence of foreign R&D centres. We conclude that issues related to China's science and technology development in general and foreign R&D in China in particular warrant more research in the future.
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    Scopus© Citations 39
  • Publication
    Managing Foreign R&D in China
    (Industrial Research Inst., 2007-05-01) ;
    Ikeda, Tadashi
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    Gong, Li
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    Carpenter, Richard
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    Hämäläinen, Seppo
    China has become one of the most desired locations in which to do R&D. However, it has little innovation of its own, and intellectual property protection is weak. This raises questions: Is China R&D more hype than reality? Do cost advantages really outweigh the risk of losing technology to Chinese competitors? Lessons learned from managing R&D in China show that in order to avoid the typical pitfalls of managing R&D in a developing country, any China-based R&D must be part of an overall China strategy and must also be part of a global R&D effort.
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  • Publication
    Foreign R&D in China - New Impulses for the Chinese Economy?
    Production-oriented foreign investments have been one of the main drivers for the renaissance of the Chinese economy. Yet, new impulses are emerging through rapidly increasing R&D activities of multinationals in China. The success of foreign R&D depends strongly on a realistic long term strategy and thorough management of the risks. By Dr. Max von Zedtwitz and Dipl. Wirtsch.-Ing. Zheng Han. [http://cn.swisscham.org/sites/default/files/publications/Bridge%20no6-Full%20version.pdf]
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