Innovative production is driven by creative destruction. High turnover requires frequent reallocation of capital. Banks play a major role in capital reallocation by withdrawing funds from nonviable firms and redirecting credit to scale up the most productive firms. Structural parameters of the banking system thus affect a country’s comparative advantage in innovative sectors. Using a Heckscher–Ohlin model with banks, this paper shows how insolvency laws, investor protection, and bank capital regulation shape reallocation, specialization, and trade patterns.