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Framing Effects in Political Decision Making: Evidence from a Natural Voting Experiment

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abstract This paper analyzes a recent ballot in which two virtually identical popular initiatives, both demanding a decrease in the legal age of retirement in Switzerland, led to differences in approval rates of nearly seven percentage points. Based on this unique natural experiment, the existence of emphasis framing effects is tested for and their determinants are identified outside of the controlled settings of laboratories. Nonetheless, the analyzed setting allows for considerably more control than usually available in the field: All party, government and interest group recommendations were symmetric for both initiatives, and the simultaneous vote rules out potential variation of individual preferences and compositional changes of the electorate over time. Using community and individual level data it is shown that the difference in approval rates is largely due to the different emphases in the initiatives' titles.
   
type discussion paper (English)
   
keywords Framing Effect, Voting, Direct Democracy, Pension Reform, Bounded Rationality, Natural Experiment
   
date of appearance 1-2-2007
series of paper Marèchal Michel, Discussion Paper no. 2007-04 (JEL Classification, D01, D72, H55, J26)
review not reviewed
   
citation Bütler, M., & Marechal, M. (2007). Framing Effects in Political Decision Making: Evidence from a Natural Voting Experiment. Marèchal Michel, Discussion Paper no. 2007-04, JEL Classification, D01, D72, H55, J26.