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PublicationThe smart factory as a key construct of industry 4.0: A systematic literature reviewIndustry 4.0 is a ubiquitous term throughout general newspapers, on company websites or in scientific journals. One of its key constructs is the smart factory, envisioned as a future state of a fully connected manufacturing system, mainly operating without human force by generating, transferring, receiving and processing necessary data to conduct all required tasks for producing all kinds of goods. Although the understanding of smart factory concepts has been sharpened in the last years, it is still difficult for industrial companies to establish a concrete strategy roadmap within the jungle of different terminologies, ideas and concepts. To generate further clarity and to consolidate the previous findings around smart factory for researchers as well as for practitioner, we conducted a systematic literature review. For this purpose, we chose a five steps approach: Scope definition, topic conceptualisation, literature search, literature analysis and synthesis, and synthesis of future research questions. During our review, we found that research within each perspective is fragmented and unequally advanced. Most publications treat single use cases with low generalizability, often rely upon machine data, typically have a technical nature and seldom incorporate impact estimations. In this paper, our key academic and practical contribution lies in the categorisation of the selected publications into eight thematic distinct perspectives within the sphere of smart factory: Decision making, cyber-physical systems, data handling, IT infrastructure, digital transformation, human machine interaction, IoT, and cloud manufacturing and services. These are further developed into the smart factory research model, stating a foundation for future research endeavors.Type: journal articleJournal: International Journal of Production EconomicsVolume: Special Issue Industry 4.0
PublicationDeterminants for the organizational configuration of manufacturing companies offering data-based servicesCreating a service business as a manufacturing company is commonly known as servitization. While research provides a solid foundation in many sub-areas of servitization, it concentrates on traditional after-sales services. In the realm of organizational structuring, scholars mostly discuss whether to integrate or separate the service business. Focusing on data-based services, literature remains silent on their effects on the organizational structure. Thus, we enlighten this topic by collecting determinants from literature influencing the organizational design of a manufacturing company. Following a systematic approach, we qualitatively assessed the impact of 14 factors on their tendency to favor separation or integration. While a clear tendency cannot be stated, this work is a first step to clarify organizational configuration problems in this area.Type: conference paperJournal: Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Proceedings
PublicationManaging Industrial ServicesThe increasing importance of industrial services and rapid digitalization towards smart and remote services pose opportunities as well as challenges to the manufacturing sector. This book provides a holistic understanding of industrial service management and guides companies into building capabilities and management practices for smart and remote services. By combining insights from research and practice, it offers a unique perspective on the core and enabling activities of manufacturing companies for growth in the service business. In essence, the first part covers action-based research findings regarding service strategy, organizational design, service innovation, service sales, services operations, and customer relationship management together with insights into value networks. The second part introduces outstanding practices from leading manufacturing companies in industrial and smart services. The book concludes with a summary of key messages and recommendations to navigate the landscape of industrial and smart service management successfully.
PublicationFundamentals of Industrial Service ManagementIn parallel to the ongoing servitization of manufacturing companies, the increasing orientation toward industrial services should also lead to professionalizing industrial service management. Providing services imposes significant challenges for manufacturing companies not only in terms of delivering them to the customers but also in creating elevated requirements for the management of the firm. It is, thus, not only a technical discussion of how to develop and deliver services. To enable an effective, efficient, and profitable service business, several prerequisites have to be fulfilled. Before we introduce our service management framework, we will shortly summarize some of the basic findings from our earlier work toward integrated service management in manufacturing companies. After the introduction of our current research framework, we will summarize the chapter.
PublicationService OperationsThis chapter explores service operations management, which covers the activities, decisions, and responsibilities of operations managers in industrial service organizations. Although service operations management is a field not often seen at the top of manufacturing companies’ agendas, it is of crucial importance due to its significant influence on customer experience and satisfaction. This chapter first presents a brief historic overview of the development of the field and then discusses the various opportunities that arise from superior service operations management. Finally, recommendations to realize superior service operation performance are presented.
PublicationEverything as a service? Introducing the St.Gallen IGaaS Management ModelManufacturing companies enhance increasingly their hardware products with services. The deployment of digital technologies intensifies the fusion of products and related services towards hybrid offerings consisting of smart products and smart services. If manufacturing companies can control all relevant performance measures of such hybrid offerings in use, they are at the edge to further transform their business. At this stage, bundles of products and services merge into a single service offering. With such a service, customers may use the product while the supplier ensures the product’s functionality. This kind of offering is called Product-as-a-Service. Manifold industry-specific applications of this concept have emerged, such as Lightning-as-a-Service or Windpower-as-a-Service. In a broader sense, these offerings are subsumed under Everything-as-a-Service (XaaS). However, only few manufacturing companies offer XaaS, let alone the number of companies that are economically successful in this endeavor. In contrast, software vendors show the successful transformation from selling on-premise solutions to offering Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). In order to do so, software companies had to restructure their offering. Far more than just adopting a new business model, switching to SaaS was a strategic move for software firms that entailed fundamental organizational changes. As software vendors demonstrate how profitable SaaS is, the underlying transformation path could be a didactic play for manufacturing companies. Importantly, a comprehensive framework to transform a manufacturing firm towards XaaS is missing. In order to fill this lacuna, we propose a holistic management model. The four layers strategy, business model, operating model and enablers represent the main levers for turning the transformation towards XaaS into action.Type: book section
PublicationType: newspaper articleJournal: STA infoVolume: 02/2018
PublicationDigitalisierung als Treiber für innovative GeschäftsmodelleType: work reportJournal: Forschung und Innovation in der Schweiz 2020: Staatssekretariat für Bildung, Forschung und Innovation SBFI
PublicationSmart Services - Transformation of the Service Organization: Benchmarking ReportNowadays, many manufacturing companies consider the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) as a cornerstone for developing new service business models. Their attempts to secure profitable margins in increasingly commoditizing markets by offering new services have been around for some years. However, what has changed fundamentally in the last years is the pace in which the technology for collecting, transmitting and analyzing data from industrial assets has evolved. This has led to the rise of smart, data-based services, which promise more efficient service delivery, or entirely new value propositions. These innovative offerings put new requirements on the service organization. Our insights from industry and research reveal that manufacturing companies on the digital transformation path require a new set of capabilities and competencies to deliver data-based services. But what are these capabilities? Where should they be anchored in the organization? And how are processes designed that integrate actors from both the traditional service world and the new digital world? Our research team from the Institute of Technology Management at the University of St. Gallen ventured into answering these and many more questions that currently preoccupy manufacturing companies starting to offer data-based services. Thus, we launched the benchmarking “Smart Services – Transformation of the Service Organization” that sheds light into key people and processes in service development, sales and delivery. The benchmarking results are explained in detail in this study. With this study, we hope to develop a better understanding for manufacturing companies how they can leverage data-based services for increasing customer satisfaction, enhancing product functionality or earning additional revenue.Type: working paper