Now showing 1 - 10 of 830
  • Publication
    The Role of AI-Based Artifacts’ Voice Capabilities for Agency Attribution
    The pervasiveness and increasing sophistication of artificial intelligence (AI)-based artifacts within private, organizational, and social realms change how humans interact with machines. Theorizing about the way humans perceive AI-based artifacts is crucial to understanding why and to what extent humans deem these as competent for, i.e., decision-making, yet has traditionally taken a modality-agnostic view. In this paper, we theorize about a particular case of interaction, namely that of voice-based interaction with AI-based artifacts. The capabilities and perceived naturalness of such artifacts, fueled by continuous advances in natural language processing, induce users to deem an artifact as able to act autonomously in a goal-oriented manner. We argue that there is a positive direct relationship between the voice capabilities of an artifact and users’ agency attribution, ultimately obscuring the artifact’s true nature and competencies. This relationship is further moderated by an artifact’s actual agency, uncertainty, and user characteristics.
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  • Publication
    Stairway to Heaven or Highway to Hell: A Model for Assessing Cognitive Automation Use Cases
    Cognitive automation (CA) moves beyond rule-based business process automation to target cognitive knowledge and service work. This allows the automation of tasks and processes, for which automation seemed unimaginable a decade ago. To organizations, these CA use cases offer vast opportunities to gain a significant competitive advantage. However, CA imposes novel challenges on organizations’ decisions regarding the automation potential of use cases, resulting in low adoption and high project failure rates. To counteract this, we draw on an action research study with a leading European manufacturing company to develop and test a model for assessing use cases’ amenability to CA. The proposed model comprises four dimensions: cognition, data, relationship, and transparency requirements. The model proposes that a use case is less (more) amenable to CA if these requirements are high (low). To account for the model’s industry-agnostic generalizability, we draw on an internal evaluation within the action research company and three additional external evaluations undertaken by independent project teams in three distinct industries. From a practice perspective, the model will help organizations make more informed decisions in selecting use cases for CA and planning their respective initiatives. From a research perspective, the identified determinants affecting use cases’ amenability to CA will enhance our understanding of CA in particular and artificial intelligence as the driving force behind CA in general.
    Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    Leveraging Low Code Development of Smart Personal Assistants: An Integrated Design Approach with the SPADE Method
    Smart personal assistants (SPAs) promise individualized user interactions owing to their varying interaction possibilities, knowledgeability, and human-like behaviors. To support the widespread adoption and use of SPAs, organizations such as Google or Amazon provide low code environments that support the development of SPAs (e.g., for Google Home or Amazon’s Alexa). These so-called low code platforms enable domain experts (e.g., business users without programming skills or experience) to develop SPAs for their purposes. However, using these platforms alone does not guarantee a useful and good conversation with novel SPAs due to non-intuitive design choices. Following a design science research approach, we propose the Smart Personal Assistant for Domain Experts (SPADE) method to address the missing link. This method supports domain experts in the development and contextualization of sophisticated SPAs for various application scenarios and focuses especially on conversational and anthropomorphic design steps. Our proof of concept and proof of value results show that SPADE is useful for supporting domain experts to create effective SPAs in different domains beyond private set-ups.
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    Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    How to Support Students’ Self-Regulated Learning in Times of Crisis: An Embedded Technology-Based Intervention in Blended Learning Pedagogies
    With the increasing prevalence of technology-enhanced learning environments, self-regulated learning (SRL) has become a crucial skill for management students and graduates in the 21st century. Self-regulated learners can take control of their own learning process by setting learning objectives and selecting appropriate learning strategies. As a result of the recent COVID-19 crisis, universities were compelled to shift to online course delivery, which greatly reduced social interaction between educators and learners and challenged educators’ feedback practices. To address this issue, we developed and embedded a technology-based intervention with temporal-proximate and regular formative feedback assessments in a large-scale management course to promote graduate students’ SRL practices. We evaluated the intervention in a quasi-experiment, which found that students with the embedded SRL intervention had higher self-assessment and learning outcome scores and lower absolute self-assessment deviation. Our study makes at least three contributions. First, we shed light on students’ SRL strategies in times of emergency remote learning, highlighting their extensive need for social support and comparison. Second, we extend the literature on SRL and social-cognitive theory by unveiling a hidden effect when embedding temporal-proximate and regular interventions. Third, we contribute an empirically evaluated intervention to foster students’ SRL in blended learning and online pedagogies.
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    Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    A Value Co-Creation Perspective on Data Labeling in Hybrid Intelligence Systems: A Design Study
    ( 2023)
    Mahei Manhai Li
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    Philipp Reinhard
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    Sarah Oeste-reiß
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    The adoption of innovative technologies confronts IT-Service-Management (ITSM) with an increasing volume and variety of requests. Artificial intelligence (AI) possesses the potential to augment customer service employees. However, the training data for AI systems are annotated by domain experts with little interest in labeling correctly due to their limited perceived value. Ultimately, insufficient labeled data leads to diminishing returns in AI performance. Following a design science research approach, we provide a novel human-in-the-loop (HIL) design for ITSM support ticket recommendations by incorporating a value co-creation perspective. The design incentivizes ITSM agents to provide labels during their everyday ticket-handling procedures. We develop a functional prototype based on 17,120 support tickets provided by a pilot partner as an instantiation and evaluate the design through accuracy metrics and user evaluations. Our evaluation revealed that recommendations after label improvement showed increased user ratings, and users are willing to contribute their domain knowledge. The improved labels can be utilized to continuously enhance the AI system as rewards showed increasing growth with decreasing marginal returns. Overall, our results emphasize agents' need for value-in-use by providing better results if they improve the labeling of support tickets pre-labeled by AI. Thus, we provide prescriptive knowledge of a novel HIL design that enables efficient and interactive labeling in the context of diverse applications of reinforcement learning systems.
  • Publication
    Shared digital artifacts – Co-creators as beneficiaries in microlearning development
    ( 2023)
    Marian Thiel De Gafenco
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    Jens Klusmeyer
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    Continuing vocational training benefits from the employees’ ability to share individual experience and expertise with their co-workers, as these assets constitute competitive advantages for companies. IT-supported systems can facilitate processes of knowledge elicitation (e. g. as part of collaborative co-creation) to ensure retainment of preferred qualitative characteristics of the resulting knowledge artifacts and provide ample opportunities to manage and configure a growing number of such artifacts in a company’s repository. It remains unclear however, how such collaborative and digital co-creation processes can benefit the individual co-creators’ expertise development. To address this gap in research and practice, an IT-supported co-creation system for microlearnings is designed and evaluated with master craftsman trainees of an inter-company vocational training center. With the deployment of the co-creation system, knowledge elaboration was examined via a qualitative evaluation of concept maps. By applying categories of the maps’ semantic properties and comparing features of expert knowledge derived from expertise research and concept mapping literature, we evaluate the process’ function to support expert knowledge elaboration as a desirable learning outcome for co-creators of shared digital artifacts. Analysis of the concept maps shows an absence of theoretical reasoning and an emphasis on contextual factors with minute details of work processes, indicating more practical than expert knowledge formation when co-creating shared digital artifacts. To improve the IT system’s effective support for expert knowledge elicitation, adjustments to the structured procedure are discussed and future research directions and limitations of this study are addressed.
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  • Publication
    Metaverse Platform Ecosystems
    ( 2023-04-27)
    Schöbel, Sofia
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    Traditionally, the metaverse has been defined as a virtual reality space in which users can interact with a computer-generated environment and other users. Nowadays, it is much more than that—the metaverse can be described as a variety of digital platforms and ecosystems, with each ecosystem as an independent universe with its own material, complementors, and functionalities. Creating metaverse ecosystems and integrated platforms results in different roles and responsibilities for complementors, consumers, platform owners, and orchestrators. The term metaverse platforms is further structured and clarified by four perspectives: innovation, production, transaction, and social interaction. Consequently, this fundamental paper defines it as: “A Metaverse is a massively scaled and interoperable meta-ecosystem of other digital ecosystems of real-time rendered 3D virtual worlds which can be experienced synchronously and persistently by an unlimited number of complementors and consumers with an increased user experience caused by a creativity-guided co-creation of goods managed by orchestrators and supported by platform owners.” Consequently, the metaverse offers vast opportunities for digital innovations beyond traditional social media or computer games and creates new infrastructures for add-on innovations in all areas of the digital economy.
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    Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    Charting the Evolution and Future of Conversational Agents: A Research Agenda Along Five Waves and New Frontiers
    (Springer Nature, 2023-04-20)
    Schöbel, Sofia
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    Benner, Dennis
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    Saqr, Mohammed
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    Conversational agents (CAs) have come a long way from their first appearance in the 1960s to today's generative models. Continuous technological advancements such as statistical computing and large language models allow for an increasingly natural and effortless interaction, as well as domain-agnostic deployment opportunities. Ultimately, this evolution begs multiple questions: How have technical capabilities developed? How is the nature of work changed through humans' interaction with conversational agents? How has research framed dominant perceptions and depictions of such agents? And what is the path forward? To address these questions, we conducted a bibliometric study including over 5000 research articles on CAs. Based on a systematic analysis of keywords, topics, and author networks, we derive "five waves of CA research" that describe the past, present, and potential future of research on CAs. Our results highlight fundamental technical evolutions and theoretical paradigms in CA research. Therefore, we discuss the moderating role of big technologies, and novel technological advancements like OpenAI GPT or BLOOM NLU that mark the next frontier of CA research. We contribute to theory by laying out central research streams in CA research, and offer practical implications by highlighting the design and deployment opportunities of CAs.
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    Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    How to Achieve Ethical Persuasive Design: A Review and Theoretical Propositions for Information Systems
    ( 2022-12-29)
    Benner, Dennis
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    Schöbel, Sofia
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    Persuasive system design (PSD) is an umbrella term for designs in information systems (IS) that can influence people’s attitude, behavior, or decision making for better or for worse. On the one hand, PSD can improve users’ engagement and motivation to change their attitude, behavior, or decision making in a favorable way, which can help them achieve a desired outcome and, thus, improve their wellbeing. On the other hand, PSD misuse can lead to unethical and undesirable outcomes, such as disclosing unnecessary information or agreeing to terms that do not favor users, which, in turn, can negatively impact their wellbeing. These powerful persuasive designs can involve concepts such as gamification, gamblification, and digital nudging, which all have become prominent in recent years and have been implemented successfully across different sectors, such as education, e-health, e-governance, e-finance, and digital privacy contexts. However, such persuasive influence on individuals raises ethical questions as PSD can impair users’ autonomy or persuade them towards a third party’s goals and, hence, lead to unethical decision-making processes and outcomes. In human-computer interaction, recent advances in artificial intelligence have made this topic particularly significant. These novel technologies allow one to influence the decisions that users make, to gather data, and to profile and persuade users into unethical outcomes. These unethical outcomes can lead to psychological and emotional damage to users. To understand the role that ethics play in persuasive system design, we conducted an exhaustive systematic literature analysis and 20 interviews to overview ethical considerations for persuasive system design. Furthermore, we derive potential propositions for more ethical PSD and shed light on potential research gaps.
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  • Publication
    Vocational Training with Microlearning - How Low-Immersive 360-Degree Learning Environments Support Work-Process-Integrated Learning
    ( 2022-05-23)
    Billert, Matthias Simon
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    Thiel de Gafenco, Marian
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    Klusmeyer, Jens
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    In-company training is facing new challenges in preparing employees for the demands of digitalized and automated manufacturing. New training concepts like microlearning are necessary to support work-process-related learning. To handle the limitations of microlearning, we develop a 360-degree learning system to demonstrate a realistic work environment. Nonetheless, there is a lack of design knowledge supporting the motivation and performance of employees using the system. Based on a systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews, we have developed design requirements for interactive 360-degree learning environments. We used a workshop-based mixed-method approach with interviews, concept maps, and video analysis to evaluate the motivation and performance of precision mechanics within a prototypical work-process-oriented learning environment in an inter-company vocational training center. The results show a positive effect on learning outcomes and motivation. In addition, the ease of use and sense of presence while using the learning environment are rated as high. We contribute to theory by shedding new light on learners' motivation and performance within work-process-oriented interactive 360-degree learning environments. Furthermore, we offer guidelines for developing such interactive 360-degree learning environments.
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    Scopus© Citations 10