Now showing 1 - 10 of 280
  • Publication
    Improving decision making through visual knowledge calibration
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2023-03-02) ;
    Purpose: This article aims to explore the so-called illusion of explanatory depth (IOED) of managers regarding their understanding of digital technologies and examines the effect of knowledge visualization one’s current understanding and decision making. Its purpose is to show that managers think they know more than they do and that this affects decision making but can be reduced through knowledge visualization. Design/methodology/approach: In two experiments with experienced managers, the authors investigate the size and impact of the IOED bias in decision making and examine if sketched self-explanations are as effective as written self-explanations to reduce the bias. Findings: The findings show that experienced managers suffer from a significant illusion concerning their explanatory understanding of digital technologies and that sketching one’s current level of explanatory understanding of these technologies supports the accurate calibration of one’s knowledge. The findings indicate that sketching knowledge is a helpful modality for the detection and subsequent recalibration of biased knowledge in domain-dependent decision making. Originality/value: This article is the first to explore the effect of sketched knowledge externalization on the calibration of explanatory knowledge of managers. It extends the literature on both, the IOED and on knowledge visualization as an instrument of knowledge calibration.
  • Publication
    Data Integration: A Real-Time, Participant-Driven, and Visually Supported Method
    (Sage, 2020) ; ;
    Comi, Alice
    We introduce a method in which instant data visualization facilitates real-time data integration and involves participants in data interpretation. The results of quantitative research (e.g., electronic card sorting) are represented visually (e.g., in a dendrogram) and fed back to research participants in follow-up focus group conversations. The visualized quantitative results are reviewed and discussed by participants. The visual display of the quantitative results is annotated with qualitative feedback generated by participants that explains, enriches, or challenges the quantitative results. We apply our method in a card sorting study of Fédération Internationale de Football Association’s (FIFA) stakeholders. An approach that facilitates real-time data integration that is participant-driven and visually supported is the unique contribution of this article to mixed methods research.
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    Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    A Visual Approach for Developing Social Enterprises
    The emerging interest in social entrepreneurship is challenged in practice by the complexity of balancing economic and social aspects, and by the difficulties of getting the public to understand the very concept of social enterprising. How can we support social entrepreneurs in developing and growing their organizations? The cognitive advantages of thinking and working visually are well established in the literature, but not yet applied to guide the entire social enterprising process. Mapping and communicating ideas visually can provide several benefits, not only in the ideation phase, but also for managing, optimizing, and growing a social enterprise. We present a framework with visual formats that can be utilized by social entrepreneurs in each specific phase of the social enterprise development: (1) idea generation, (2) social enterprise model refinement, (3) idea promotion and resources acquisition, (4) planning, (5) sales and instructions, (6) scaling impact, and (7) measuring and monitoring. At a theoretical level, the framework aims to structure and summarize the benefits of visual representations of knowledge for the field of social entrepreneurship. This visual approach has practical applications for social entrepreneurs who can utilize it as an overarching tool, for an informed selection and use of visualizations to support the development of their social ventures.
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  • Publication
    Visual Replay Methodology: A Mixed Methods Approach for Group Discussion Analysis
    In this article, we propose an innovative mixed methods research (MMR) technique and discuss its theory and applications. The visual replay methodology (VRM) is a new graphic way to investigate the discourse patterns during software-aided small group discussions. A visually supported conversation is recorded through screen capturing and replayed to reconstruct how the discussion has unfolded. The VRM responds to the “integration challenge” that the MMR community is facing—by employing the power of visualization, data integration is leveraged to a new level, where visual synergy gains enable a “value-added” research outcome. By employing multigenre integration and a moderately pragmatic approach, the VRM reduces the researcher–subject power-relation gap and contributes to some long-standing MMR debates regarding reflexivity and participation.
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    Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    The collaborative dimensions of argument maps: A socio-visual approach
    This paper examines the collaborative use of visual argument maps in the context of argument production in organizations. Argument maps are highly multimodal, as their use involves the combination of diagrams, text elements, as well as spoken statements. In this theoretical piece, we apply a Collaborative Dimensions framework to argument maps that can be used to better design, understand, evaluate, and use argument maps in collaborative settings for decision making purposes. Specifically, our conceptual framework – derived from interdisciplinary perspectives – takes into consideration how the visual dimensions of argument maps have a bearing on the social interactions of people involved in a complex argumentation process. We posit that cognitive dimensions of argument maps need to be enriched with additional communicative and collaborative dimensions in order to foster a more widespread adoption of argument mapping in organizational decision making. In our socio-visual approach to argument mapping, we thus distinguish the following seven dimensions: Visual Insight, Outcome Clarity, Directed Focus, Perceived Finishedness, Visual Appeal, Content Modifiability, and Collaboration Support. We illustrate the use of the framework as an evaluation tool and analyze three different approaches to argument mapping with the help of the seven dimensions. In this way, the framework can be used to improve collaborative argument mapping. Our contribution thus lies in proposing an interdisciplinary and theoretically grounded set of factors to augment the quality of argument maps, both from a process and a results perspective. In this manner we hope to contribute to the theory of argumentation through the rich notion of “collaborative dimensions,” as well as further the practice of collaborative argument production through a more reflective and systematic use of interactive argument visualization.
  • Publication
    Strategizing for social change in nonprofit contexts: A typology of communication approaches in public communication campaigns
    Public communication campaigns aim to create social change by influencing audiences’ behaviors and thus help nonprofit organizations fulfill their mission. These campaigns, however, often fail to deliver their anticipated impact. Using public relations research as a theoretical lens, this paper’s contribution is twofold: first, we develop a typology that classifies the different communication approaches used in public communication campaigns. Based on one of the most prominent public relations theories, the Four Models of Public Relations, we differentiate communication approaches along the dimensions of communication purpose and communication style. Combining these two dimensions in a typology, we identify the following communication approaches: directing, platforming, mobilizing, and involving. We provide numerous real-life examples of public campaigns for each one. Second, we formulate propositions about these communication approaches’ effectiveness relying on a key concept of public relations research: namely, audience segmentation. Using the transtheoretical model, we show that audiences can be segmented along five “stages of readiness to adopt a promoted behavior.” Conceptualizing behavior change as an iterative, dynamic process that entails stage progresses as well as backdrops, we derive how audiences’ “stage of readiness” relates to the effectiveness of the identified communication approaches.
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  • Publication
    We walk the line: Icons provisional appearances on virtual whiteboards trigger elaborative dialogue and creativity
    Collaborative groupwork is a key creativity tool in industry. Digital Creativity Support Systems (CSS) have become a critical catalyst of distributed creative processes. Under laboratory conditions, this interaction design study uses an experiment to investigate the impact of apparent icon finishedness as a social affordance for elaborative dialogue, and enhanced creativity. The experiment examines the idea generation processes of 37 pairs of active managers using a synchronous CSS. Apparent finishedness is a purely presentational factor - it is completely separate from the actual substance of an idea. The results show that presenting ideas with icons made of sketchy natural lines with low perceived finishedness encourages elaborative dialogue and creativity. Low perceived finishedness icons functioned as a social affordance - they afforded the social behaviour of building upon each other’s ideas as well as more creative idea generation. This is the first study to quantitatively examine the perceived finishedness of icons. This study shows that minor changes in visual treatments significantly impact creative processes and outcomes. As co-constructive interaction is central to many collaborative behaviours across working and learning, this study has clear implications for the subtle encouragement of co-construction in computer-mediated communication.
    Scopus© Citations 17
  • Publication
    Understanding the Impact of Visual Representation Restrictiveness on Experience Sharing: an Experimental Assessment
    This study investigates the effects of the restrictiveness of visuals on the communication process and outcome in small groups. Visual restrictiveness is conceived as the constraints imposed by a graphic template on the process of knowledge work. Through an experiment with ninety six experienced professionals we test the impact of a medium and a high level of visual restrictiveness compared to a control condition. As predicted, the results show that a medium level of visual restrictiveness, embodied in a grid layout, leads to higher experience sharing effectiveness. The impact is mediated by the structural pattern of appropriation of the interactive graphical template (assessed with content analysis). The implications of this study include extending the benefits and applications of visual representations to support group communication and the development (and testing) of the concept of visual restrictiveness.
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    Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    Knowledge Scaffolding Visualizations: a Guiding Framework
    (Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, 2015-03-03) ; ;
    In this paper we provide a guiding framework for understanding and selecting visual representations in the knowledge management (KM) practice. We build on an interdisciplinary analogy between two connotations of the notion of "scaffolding": physical scaffolding from an architectural-engineering perspective and scaffolding of the "everyday knowing in practice" from a KM perspective. We classify visual structures for knowledge communication in teams into four types of scaffolds: grounded (corresponding e.g., to perspectives diagrams or dynamic facilitation diagrams), suspended (e.g., negotiation sketches, argument maps), panel (e.g., roadmaps or timelines) and reinforcing (e.g., concept diagrams). The article concludes with a set of recommendations in the form of questions to ask whenever practitioners are choosing visualizations for specific KM needs. Our recommendations aim at providing a framework at a broad-brush level to aid choosing a suitable visualization template depending on the type of KM endeavour.
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