Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Publication
    Special Issue Editorial: Adaptive and Intelligent Gamification Design
    ( 2023-06-30) ;
    Manuel Schmidt-kraepelin
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    Sofia Schöbel
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    Ali Sunyaev
    This editorial provides an overview of the three accepted papers for the AIS THCI special issue on adaptive and intelligent gamification designs. The first paper examines conversational agents and how one can use gamification to make the design more engaging. The second study focuses on mobile fitness apps and analyzes the role that personality plays in apps and game designs. Finally, the third paper examines gamification in a virtual laboratory environment. Aligned with current work, we present future research directions that involve generative AI, the metaverse, and a shift in gamification research and practice in the future.
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  • Publication
    How to Achieve Ethical Persuasive Design: A Review and Theoretical Propositions for Information Systems
    ( 2022-12-29)
    Benner, Dennis
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    Schöbel, Sofia
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    Persuasive system design (PSD) is an umbrella term for designs in information systems (IS) that can influence people’s attitude, behavior, or decision making for better or for worse. On the one hand, PSD can improve users’ engagement and motivation to change their attitude, behavior, or decision making in a favorable way, which can help them achieve a desired outcome and, thus, improve their wellbeing. On the other hand, PSD misuse can lead to unethical and undesirable outcomes, such as disclosing unnecessary information or agreeing to terms that do not favor users, which, in turn, can negatively impact their wellbeing. These powerful persuasive designs can involve concepts such as gamification, gamblification, and digital nudging, which all have become prominent in recent years and have been implemented successfully across different sectors, such as education, e-health, e-governance, e-finance, and digital privacy contexts. However, such persuasive influence on individuals raises ethical questions as PSD can impair users’ autonomy or persuade them towards a third party’s goals and, hence, lead to unethical decision-making processes and outcomes. In human-computer interaction, recent advances in artificial intelligence have made this topic particularly significant. These novel technologies allow one to influence the decisions that users make, to gather data, and to profile and persuade users into unethical outcomes. These unethical outcomes can lead to psychological and emotional damage to users. To understand the role that ethics play in persuasive system design, we conducted an exhaustive systematic literature analysis and 20 interviews to overview ethical considerations for persuasive system design. Furthermore, we derive potential propositions for more ethical PSD and shed light on potential research gaps.
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  • Publication
    Adaptive and Personalized Gamification Designs: Call for Action and Future Research
    ( 2021-12-30)
    Schöbel, Sofia
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    Schmidt-Kraepelin, Manuel
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    Sunyaev, Ali
    Gamification refers to the use of game-like elements in non-entertainment contexts to make activities more engaging and enjoyable to improve utilitarian outcomes. The gamification literature and the use of gamification in practice suggest that gamification can be a useful tool to support behavioral and psychological changes. Recent developments show that there is potential for new waves of gamification research. Therefore, we conducted a workshop at the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) 2021 to discuss the future of gamification with interested scholars. The discussion with 25 gamification experts led to a research agenda that supports the need for adaptive and personalized gamification designs. Together with the experts, we identify three clusters for future research: 1) the personalization of gamification concepts, 2) theories and concepts for gamified human-computer interaction, and 3) the “dark side” of gamification (e.g., addiction). We also address what the gamification concept means. Aligned with the three clusters, we provide valuable starting points for future research inquiries to help researchers better understand the nature of gamification. We also discuss the capabilities and limits of gamification.
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  • Publication
    Two decades of game concepts in digital learning environments – A bibliometric study and research agenda
    (Elsevier, 2021)
    Schöbel, Sofia
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    Mohammed, Saqr
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    In recent years, using game concepts for educational purposes in digital environments has become continually more popular and relevant. Games can be used to motivate and engage users in regular system use and, in the end, support learners in achieving better learning outcomes. In this context, different kinds of game concepts exist, such as gamification or serious games, each with a different perspective and usefulness in digital learning environments. Because developing and using with game concepts in digital learning environments has recently become more important, and developing them is still not fully established, questions arise about future research directions involving games in digital learning. Therefore, this study aims to identify the state of the field and determine what is relevant when using game concepts in digital learning. To achieve this goal, we present the results of a bibliometric analysis considering more than 10,000 articles between 2000 and 2019 and summarize them to develop a research agenda. This agenda supports researchers and practitioners in identifying avenues for future research. We contribute to theory by providing a detailed understanding of the relevance of game concepts in digital learning. We propose a research agenda to assist researchers in planning future approaches with and about gamification concepts in digital learning. Practical implications are proposed by demonstrating what should be considered when using game concepts in learning environments.
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    Scopus© Citations 52
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    A Research Agenda for the Why, What, and How of Gamification Designs Results on an ECIS 2019 Panel
    ( 2020)
    Schöbel, Sofia
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    Jahn, Katharina
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    Kordyaka, Bastian
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    Turetken, Ozgur
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    Djafarova, Naza
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    Saqr, Mohammad
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    Wu, Dezhi
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    Adam, Martin
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    Heiberg Gad, Povl
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    Wesseloh, Henrik
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    This report summarizes the discussion in a panel session on gamification designs at the 2019 European Conference on Information Systems in Stockholm, Sweden. The panel explores a research agenda for gamification design. The “what, why, and how” are considered to analyze the current state of the art of gamification research. An adapted defini-tion of gamification is presented as one outcome of the workshop to better describe what gamification is and what it can be used for. “Why” and “how” to employ gamification are discussed for different contexts. This can be used to gamify information systems, identity outcomes that are addressed by gamification concepts, and explore new ways of how to gamify. Overall, the panel presents new areas for future research and practice by identifying innovative ways to bring existing gamification concepts to a more impactful level.
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    Scopus© Citations 34
  • Publication
    Engaging Minds – How Gamified Chatbots can Support and Motivate Learners in Digital Education
    ( 2024-01-06)
    Dennis Benner
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    Sofia Schöbel
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    Blended and online learning is growing, and self-regulated learning is becoming more relevant. Most often, students struggle with organizing their own learning processes, lose focus or procrastinate. Keeping learners motivated and engaged can be a real challenge. Therefore, we present gamified chatbots as a potential solution. On the one hand, chatbots can provide a more engaging learning experience. On the other hand, gamification can provide motivational incentives to keep learners engaged and motivated. So far, not many studies have elaborated on how gamification can be effectively used to make a chatbot interaction more engaging or improve the learning experience. This study uses an experimental approach to distinguish how a combination of badges and a progress bar can support and motivate learners to stay engaged with their learning activities. We elaborate on the effects of gamified chatbots and support practitioners with guidance on how to design gamified chatbots in education.
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    Gamification of Online Training and its Relation to Engagement and Problem-solving Outcomes
    ( 2019-08-09)
    Schöbel, Sofia
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    Hopp, Jennifer Christin
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    Online training to teach students problem-solving skills is becoming increasingly important. However, due to the complexity of such training, it is challenging to keep learners motivated and engaged in the learning process. One concept that can be used to motivate and engage learners is gamification. Gamification is about using game elements in non-game contexts. Research is lack-ing on which determinants of gamification promote engagement and improve problem-solving out-comes in learning. Therefore, the goal of our study is to analyze how gamification can impact engagement, problem solving outcomes and their related constructs such as motivation in IT-based training. To achieve our goal, we conducted a randomized experiment by creating a gamified online training program to teach students how to construct and develop value proposition canvases. The results of our study indicate that engagement is a central construct for explaining the effects of gamification on problem-solving outcomes. Our results contribute to theory by explaining the meaning and role of motivation, engagement, and their influence on the problem-solving skills learned by the students. We contribute to practice by offering suggestions regarding the design of online training programs and how to make them more motivating and engaging to learners.
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  • Publication
    A Configurational View on Avatar Design – The Role of Emotional Attachment, Satisfaction, and Cognitive Load in Digital Learning
    ( 2019-12-14)
    Schöbel, Sofia
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    Mishra, Abhay Nath
    In online learning settings interactive and meaningful feedback is becoming increasingly important. However, feedback from teachers is oftentimes missing in online learning settings. To overcome challenges that arise from the missing representation of teachers, our study analyzes the relevance of avatar designs in learning settings. We therefore rely on avatars as game design elements and analyze how their design can influence emotional attachment, learning process satisfaction, and extraneous cognitive load in learning. To achieve our goal, we conduct a qualitative comparative analysis with 998 datasets that were collected in a 2x2x2 pre-post online experiment that was developed to train participants in learning functions in Excel. Our results indicate that interaction, familiarity, motivation, and aesthetic experiences are important configurations for avatars that are used in learning. We contribute to different streams of theory such as self-expansion and guide practitioners by providing implications about how to create meaningful avatar designs for learning applications.
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